Uzbekistan, officially the Republic of Uzbekistan, is really a doubly landlocked country in Central Asia. It's a unitary, constitutional, presidential republic, comprising twelve provinces, one autonomous republic along with a capital city. Uzbekistan is bordered by five landlocked countries: Kazakhstan towards the north; Tajikistan to the southeast; Kyrgyzstan towards the northeast; Afghanistan to the south; and Turkmenistan towards the southwest.
Once area of the Turkic Khaganate and later Timurid Empires, the location that today includes the Republic of Uzbekistan was conquered in early 16th century by Eastern Turkic-speaking nomads. The area was gradually incorporated into the Russian Empire throughout the 1800s, and in 1924 what's now Uzbekistan became a bordered constituent republic from the Ussr, known as the Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic (Uzbek SSR). Following the breakup from the Soviet Union, it declared independence as the Republic of Uzbekistan on 31 August 1991 (officially celebrated the following day).
Uzbekistan is officially a democratic, secular, unitary, constitutional republic having a diverse cultural heritage. The nation's official language is Uzbek, a Turkic language designed in the Latin alphabet and spoken natively by approximately 85% of people; however, Russian remains in widespread use. Uzbeks constitute 81% of people, followed by Russians (5.4%), Tajiks (4.0%), Kazakhs (3.0%), yet others (6.5%). A majority of Uzbeks are non-denominational Muslims. Uzbekistan is part of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), UN, and also the SCO. While officially a democratic republic, non-governmental human rights organizations define Uzbekistan as "an authoritarian state with limited civil rights".
Uzbekistan's economy relies mainly on commodity production, including cotton, gold, uranium, and gas. Regardless of the declared objective of transition to a market economy, its government is constantly on the maintain economic controls which imports in favour of domestic "import substitution".